Anti-σ factor: Members of ECF31 might be regulated by putative AS factors encoded in +1. These AS factors contain two transmembrane helices (84.35%) with a DUF3545 and a DUF2207 that covers the total length of the sequence. Members of ECF31s5 (12.5%) contain a cytoplasmic zinc-finger in their putative AS factor. Proteins encoded in +2 are conserved and contain two transmembrane helices. Among the domains that these proteins contain we could find a virulence factor BrkB domain or a MAP17 domain, known to interact with PDZ domains (Kocher, Comella, Tognazzi, & Brown, 1998).
Genomic context conservation: Other than the AS factor, members of ECF31 contain several genes that encode proteins from ABC transporters (positions +3 and +4 in ECF31s1 and ECF31s2) and the N-terminal domain of a phospholipase D-nuclease (Pfam: PLDc_N) (position +5 in ECF31s1 and ECF31s2) in their genetic context. Other domains conserved in the genetic context of members of ECF31 included the C subunit of Glu-tRNAGln amidotransferase (+7 of ECF31s2), an amidase (+8 of ECF31s2), GatB (+9 of ECF31s2), a protein with an acetyltransferase (GNAT) domain (+10 of ECF31s2), a metallo-beta-lactamase (-2 of ECF31s2), a thioredoxin (-3 of ECF31s2), a SNARE-associated Golgi protein (-4 of ECF31s2).
Studied members: Characterized members of ECF31 include SigY from Bacillus subtilis (ECF31s1). SigYs activity is dependent on YxlC, the putative AS factor encoded in +1, and YxlD encoded in +2 (Cao et al., 2003; Tojo et al., 2003; Yoshimura, Asai, Sadaie, & Yoshikawa, 2004). SigY is induced under nitrogen starvation (Tojo et al., 2003) and it is needed for maintaining the SPβ prophage, which encodes sublacin and its resistance cassette (Mendez, Gutierrez, Reyes, & Márquez-Magaña, 2012). When active, SigY induces only its expression and the one protein of unknown function YbgB (Cao et al., 2003). Homologs of YxlD are conserved across ECF31.
Summary: Members of ECF31 might be regulated by AS factors with two transmembrane helices encoded in +1. The function of members of ECF31 might be related to the presence of conserved transmembrane proteins in +2, as in the case of SigY from B. subtilis (Cao et al., 2003; Tojo et al., 2003; Yoshimura et al., 2004). Other proteins that could participate in ECF31 activity are ABC transporters and phospholipase D-nuclease, encoded in their genetic context.
Number of representative ECFs: 291
Number of non-redundant ECFs: 326
Sequences with C-terminal extension: 0.00%
Sequences with N-terminal extension: 0.92%
Overrepresented class: Bacilli [89.00%]
|Identification and partial characterization of PDZK1: a novel protein containing PDZ interaction domains.||Laboratory investigation; a journal of technical methods and pathology||1998||O. Kocher, N. Comella, K. Tognazzi, L. Brown||PubMed: 9461128||ECF31|
|Regulation of the Bacillus subtilis extracytoplasmic function protein sigma(Y) and its target promoters.||Journal of bacteriology||2003||M. Cao, L. Salzberg, C. Tsai, T. Mascher, C. Bonilla, T. Wang, R. Ye, L. Márquez-Magaña, J. Helmann||PubMed: 12897008||ECF31|
|Organization and expression of the Bacillus subtilis sigY operon.||Journal of biochemistry||2003||S. Tojo, M. Matsunaga, T. Matsumoto, C. Kang, H. Yamaguchi, K. Asai, Y. Sadaie, K. Yoshida, Y. Fujita||PubMed: 14769884||ECF31|
|The third pillar of bacterial signal transduction: classification of the extracytoplasmic function (ECF) sigma factor protein family.||Molecular microbiology||2009||A. Staroń, H. Sofia, S. Dietrich, L. Ulrich, H. Liesegang, T. Mascher||PubMed: 19737356||ECF103, ECF21, ECF123, ECF51, ECF39, ECF281, ECF102, ECF130, ECF122, ECF291, ECF15, ECF242, ECF22, ECF285, ECF106, ECF27, ECF31, ECF240, ECF114, ECF16, ECF38, ECF41, ECF105, ECF116, ECF111, ECF03, ECF239, ECF42, ECF294, ECF17, ECF11, ECF29, ECF235, ECF293, ECF118, ECF265, ECF30, ECF23, ECF14, ECF249, ECF18, ECF115, ECF290, ECF25, ECF121, ECF02, ECF120, ECF289, ECF28, ECF243, ECF19, ECF43, ECF107, ECF12, ECF32, ECF36, ECF292, ECF286, ECF271, ECF26, ECF40, ECF56, ECF33|
|The extracytoplasmic function sigma factor SigY is important for efficient maintenance of the Spβ prophage that encodes sublancin in Bacillus subtilis.||DNA and cell biology||2012||R. Mendez, A. Gutierrez, J. Reyes, L. Márquez-Magaña||PubMed: 22400495||ECF31|
|Type IV pili in Gram-positive bacteria.||Microbiology and molecular biology reviews : MMBR||2013||S. Melville, L. Craig||PubMed: 24006467||ECF31, ECF105|